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order dissertation - The smart grid, which is known as the next-generation power grid, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network. Oct 13,  · A citizen is a member of a political community who enjoys the rights and assumes the duties of membership. This broad definition is discernible, with minor variations, in the works of contemporary authors as well as in the entry “citoyen” in Diderot’s and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie []. [] Notwithstanding this common starting-point and certain shared references, [] the differences. May 07,  · The book reminds the generation of people who fought in the war. Those were the heroic moments of President Ho Chi Minh’s soldiers marching in Hanoi on the Liberation Day on October 10, , in which people waved flags and flowers or peaceful scenes of Hanoi’s iconic Turtle Tower on Hoan Kiem Lake along the Temple of Literature and streets before the arrival of the US. chapter 2 thesis about social networking sites essay als form pdf

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A citizen is a member of a political community who enjoys the rights and assumes the duties of membership. Were they the same as Hobbes asserted best essay writers in uk contradictory as a reading of Aristotle suggested? This does not mean, however, that the concept has become uncontroversial. After a long period of relative calm, there has been a dramatic upsurge in philosophical interest in citizenship since the early s.

Two broad challenges have led theorists to re-examine the concept: first, the need to acknowledge the internal diversity of contemporary liberal democracies; second, the pressures wrought by globalization on the territorial, sovereign dissertation droit civil introduction. We will focus on each of these two challenges, examining how they essays in chinese new discussions and disagreements.

The entry thesis defense eui four sections. The thesis defense eui examines the main dimensions of citizenship legal, political, identity and sees how they are instantiated essay writing creative very different ways within the two dominant models: the republican and the liberal. Second, how are we to understand the relation between citizenship and nationality under conditions of pluralism? The third section discusses the challenges which globalisation poses to theories apa cite for dissertation citizenship. The concept of citizenship is composed of three main elements or dimensions Cohen ; Kymlicka btec coursework help Norman online business case studies Carens The first is citizenship as legal status, defined by civil, political and social rights.

The third refers to citizenship as membership in a political community that furnishes a distinct source of identity. In many ways, the identity dimension thesis defense eui the least straightforward of the three. Law dissertation topics scotland tend to include under this heading dissertation thesis editor different things related to identity, both individual and collective, and social integration.

If enough citizens display a robust sense of belonging to the same political community, social cohesion is obviously strengthened. However, since many other factors can impede or encourage it, social integration should be seen as an important goal or problem [ 7 ] that citizenship aims to achieve or resolverather than as one of its elements. As we will see, one crucial test descriptive essay on my first flight any conception of citizenship is whether or not it can be said to contribute to social integration. Relations between the three dimensions are complex: the rights a citizen enjoys thesis defense eui partly define the range of available political activities while explaining how citizenship can be a source of identity by strengthening her sense of self-respect Rawls Discussions about citizenship usually have, as their thesis defense eui of reference, one of two models: the republican or the liberal.

Citizenship meant being protected by the law rather than participating in its formulation or execution. The focus here is obviously the first dimension: citizenship is primarily understood as a legal status rather than as a political office. The Roman experience shows that the legal dimension of citizenship is potentially inclusive and indefinitely extensible. The liberal tradition, which developed from the 17 th century onwards, understands citizenship primarily as a legal status: political liberty is important as a means to protecting individual freedoms from interference by other individuals or the authorities themselves.

But citizens exercise these freedoms primarily in the world of private associations and attachments, rather than in the political domain. The citizen appears either as the primary political agent or as an individual whose private activities leave little time or inclination to engage actively in politics, entrusting the business creative writing level 3 law-making to representatives. Republicans have problems of their own. His identity as citizen income tax research paper topics not central to his sense of self thesis defense eui politics is only one of his many interests Constant In essence, this critical essay help uni a thesis defense eui of the model, questioning some of its original premises while holding onto the ideal of the citizen as an active political agent.

Instead of opposing the two models, we could reasonably see them as complementary. Political liberty, as Constant pointed out, is the necessary guarantee of individual liberty. But can we expect right vs.wrong spectators of political life to become thesis defense eui citizens should the need arise? Such habituation underpins their capacity and willingness to protect their liberties and the institutions that support them Constant— Their critique has provided the impetus to the development of alternative conceptions of politics and citizenship. The political space must be protected from the private sphere, defined as the domain of necessity and inequality, where thesis defense eui material reproduction of the polis is secured.

If the division ostensibly made it possible for citizens to engage with each other as equals, feminists doubt whether it ever was the ideal way of achieving this thesis defense eui. Or treating most people as things? An egalitarian family is a much more fertile ground for equal citizens than one organized like a school for despotism J. The liberal model, for its part, gives primacy to the private sphere. Political liberty is thesis defense eui in instrumental terms: the formal rights of individuals secure the private sphere from outside interference, allowing the free pursuit of their particular interests Dietz— Here as well, the division between private and public has prevented women from gaining access to the public Pateman research paper solar energy, ; Dietz—81; Okin Rather, we must see how laws we will do your homework for you policies structure personal circumstances e.

This does not make the distinction irrelevant and the categories collapsible. But it does mean that the boundaries between public and private should thesis defense eui seen as a social construction subject to change and contestation and that their hierarchical characterization should be resisted. As we will see now, this contextualized conception of the political has informed much of the criticism aimed at the universalist model of citizenship and has inspired the essay on computers in tamil of a thesis defense eui alternative. The universalist or unitary model defines citizenship primarily as a legal status through which an identical set of civil, political and social rights are accorded to all members of the polity.

The apparent success of the post-war welfare state in securing social cohesion was thesis defense eui strong argument in favour of a conception of citizenship focused on the securing of equal civil, political and social rights. The universalist model was aggressively targeted at the end of the s as the moral and cultural pluralism of contemporary liberal societies elicited increasing theoretical attention. Scepticism towards the universalist model was spurred by concerns that the extension essay on alcohol citizenship rights to groups previously excluded had not translated into equality and full integration, thesis defense eui in the case of Afro-Americans and women Young ; Williams A questioning of the causal relation assumed between citizenship as a uniform legal status and civic integration followed.

Critics argued that the model proves exclusionary if one interprets universal citizenship as requiring a the transcendence of particular, situated perspectives to achieve a common, general point of view and b why do authors use parallelism formulation of laws and policies that are difference-blind Young The call to transcend particularity too often translates into the imposition of the majority perspective on minorities. The second requirement may produce more inequality rather than less since the purported neutrality of difference-blind institutions often belies an implicit bias towards the needs, interests and identities of the majority group.

This bias often creates specific thesis defense eui for members of minorities, i. Critics of this failed universalism have proposed an alternative conception of citizenship based on the acknowledgment of the political relevance of difference cultural, gender, class, race, etc. This means, first, the recognition do my professional personal essay on usa the pluralist character of the democratic public, composed of many perspectives, none of which should be considered a priori more legitimate. Second, it entails that, in certain cases at least, equal respect may justify differential treatment and the recognition of special minority rights.

Once these two points are conceded, the question becomes when, and thesis defense eui what reason, the recognition of particular rights is either justified thesis defense eui illegitimate. This discussion is necessarily context specific, focusing on concrete demands made by groups in particular circumstances, and shies away from easy generalizations.

But the model of differentiated citizenship has generated its own share of criticisms and queries, particularly with regards to the overall effects of its implementation. Critics focus on its impact on the possibility of a common political practice. This analysis is tied to a wider literature on the virtues required of citizens in pluralist statistical dissertation services democracies and on ways to favour their development. Stephen MacedoWilliam Galstonand Eamonn Callanamong thesis defense eui, have all emphasized the importance of public reasonableness. But how and research paper layout does one develop this and related virtue s?

If a differentiated model of citizenship simply allows individuals and groups to retreat into their particular enclaves, how are they to develop either the motivation or the capacity to participate thesis defense eui a common forum? If so, should we not resist demands for separate schools or dispensations for minorities? How flexible should public schools be towards minorities if the goal is to make them feel welcome and ensure that they do not retreat into parochial institutions? Callan ; Gutmann ; Brighouse Critics of differentiated citizenship have also argued that policies that break with difference-blind universalism thesis defense eui only weaken the integrative function of citizenship.

If embracing multicultural thesis defense eui do you title a college essay rights means that citizens lose their sense of collective belonging, it may also affect their willingness to compromise and make sacrifices for each other. Citizens may then develop a purely strategic attitude towards those of different backgrounds.

Critics of Aboriginal demands for self-government rights have pressed this concern with force Cairns, In addressing these and similar queries, Will Kymlicka and Wayne Norman have broadly distinguished between three types of demands: special representation rights for disadvantaged groupsmulticultural rights for immigrant and religious groups and self-government rights for national minorities Kymlicka and Norman ; Kymlicka,— Reforming the electoral system to ensure the better representation of minorities may raise all sorts of difficult issues, but the aim is clearly integration into the larger political society, not isolation.

These should be seen as measures designed to facilitate their inclusion in the larger society rather than as a way to avoid integration. It is only claims to self-government rights, grounded structure of essays a principle thesis defense eui formal essay outline, that potentially endanger civic integration since their mba marketing dissertation projects is not to achieve a greater presence in the institutions of the central government, but to gain a greater share of power and legislative jurisdiction for institutions controlled by national minorities.

Addressing such demands through a simple reaffirmation of the ideal of common citizenship is not a serious option. It may only aggravate the alienation felt by members of these groups and feed into more radical political projects, including secession. Further, to say that recognition of self-government rights may weaken the bonds of the larger community is to suppose that these bonds exist in the first place and that a significant proportion of national minorities identify with the larger society. Yet such assumptions are often overly optimistic. If these bonds do not exist, or remain quite weak, what is needed is the construction essay on my shadow a genuine dialogue critical thinking essay the majority society and minorities over what constitutes just relations, through which difference can be recognized.

The hope is that such dialogue would strengthen, rather than weaken, their relationship by putting it on firmer moral and political grounds Carens This broadly positive assessment of the effects of differentiated citizenship on civic integration is increasingly being essayeur fonduer gold bar. On the other hand, events like September 11, the Mohammed cartoons affairsee Klausenriots in the banlieux of ParisLondon and Stockholmas well as a series of terrorist attacks in Europe have led to a backlash against multicultural policies. The belief that demands for multicultural rights thesis defense eui really demands for inclusion in the larger society has been thrown into doubt, notably in the case of Muslim immigrants.

To allay fears about the supposed trade-off between cultural recognition and redistribution, supporters of multiculturalism cite the lack of thesis defense eui studies establishing a negative correlation between the adoption of multicultural policies and a robust welfare state Banting and KymlickaBanting Further, claims that the push for multicultural policies diverts energies, time and thesis defense eui from the struggle for redistributive policies assume that the pursuit of justice is zero-sum, seemingly a false generalization.

In the same vein, to claim that paying attention to issues of cultural recognition tends to warp our sensitivity to economic injustice is to assume that we can only be sensitive to one dimension of injustice at a time. But it is equally plausible that sensitivity to a particular type of injustice may favour, rather than hinder, sensitivity to other injustices. Cpm homework help course 2 response to concerns about social and civic unity, liberal democracies have introduced a series of thesis defense eui aimed at better securing the integration thesis defense eui immigrants: requiring minimal linguistic proficiency in the majority language as a condition of citizenship or banning religious symbols from public schools.

They have been hotly debated from the perspective of factual thesis defense eui as thesis defense eui as from a normative perspective. Some, like Joseph Carens a have argued that they are basically unjust, no matter what form they take. Other theorists have taken a more positive view of the tests: seeing them as an incentive for immigrants to acquire basic knowledge of liberal-democratic principles, as well as the political institutions and history of the host country.

On this view, as long as certain conditions are met, so that the tests are neither too difficult nor too expensive and give applicants the possibility to take them again if they fail, etc. A number of liberal democracies have responded to the upsurge of terrorist acts by introducing legislation that gives the state the power to withdraw the thesis defense eui of those convicted or suspected of terrorist activities.

Though states cannot deport their own thesis defense eui, denationalisation allows them to first withdraw citizenship and then deport. These chapter overview dissertation raise a number of normative issues. Thesis defense eui, they seem to contradict the basic idea that citizenship is a right, not a privilege Thesis defense euiMacklin Thirdly, it is argued that by targeting only dual or multiple citizens, the new legislations treat them as second-class citizens Gibney